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  Femtosecond X‐ray Diffraction of Laser‐shocked Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to 122 GPa

Kim, D., Tracy, S. J., Smith, R. F., Gleason, A. E., Bolme, C. A., Prakapenka, V. B., Appel, K., Speziale, S., Wicks, J. K., Berryman, E. J., Han, S. K., Schoelmerich, M. O., Lee, H. J., Nagler, B., Cunningham, E. F., Akin, M. C., Asimow, P. D., Eggert, J. H., Duffy, T. S. (2021): Femtosecond X‐ray Diffraction of Laser‐shocked Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to 122 GPa. - Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 126, 1, e2020JB020337.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JB020337

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Item Permalink: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5004607 Version Permalink: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5004607_6
Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Kim, Donghoon1, Author
Tracy, Sally J.1, Author
Smith, Raymond F.1, Author
Gleason, Arianna E.1, Author
Bolme, Cindy A.1, Author
Prakapenka, Vitali B.1, Author
Appel, Karen1, Author
Speziale, S.2, Author              
Wicks, June K.1, Author
Berryman, Eleanor J.1, Author
Han, Sirus K.1, Author
Schoelmerich, Markus O.1, Author
Lee, Hae Ja1, Author
Nagler, Bob1, Author
Cunningham, Eric F.1, Author
Akin, Minta C.1, Author
Asimow, Paul D.1, Author
Eggert, Jon H.1, Author
Duffy, Thomas S.1, Author
Affiliations:
1External Organizations, ou_persistent22              
23.6 Chemistry and Physics of Earth Materials, 3.0 Geochemistry, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, ou_146036              

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 Abstract: The response of forsterite, Mg2SiO4, under dynamic compression is of fundamental importance for understanding its phase transformations and high‐pressure behavior. Here, we have carried out an in situ X‐ray diffraction study of laser‐shocked polycrystalline and single‐crystal forsterite (a‐, b‐, and c‐ orientations) from 19 to 122 GPa using the Matter in Extreme Conditions end‐station of the Linac Coherent Light Source. Under laser‐based shock loading, forsterite does not transform to the high‐pressure equilibrium assemblage of MgSiO3 bridgmanite and MgO periclase, as has been suggested previously. Instead, we observe forsterite and forsterite III, a metastable polymorph of Mg2SiO4, coexisting in a mixed‐phase region from 33 to 75 GPa for both polycrystalline and single‐crystal samples. Densities inferred from X‐ray diffraction data are consistent with earlier gas‐gun shock data. At higher stress, the response is sample‐dependent. Polycrystalline samples undergo amorphization above 79 GPa. For [010]‐ and [001]‐oriented crystals, a mixture of crystalline and amorphous material is observed to 108 GPa, whereas the [100]‐oriented forsterite adopts an unknown phase at 122 GPa. The first two sharp diffraction peaks of amorphous Mg2SiO4 show a similar trend with compression as those observed for MgSiO3 in both recent static‐ and laser‐driven shock experiments. Upon release to ambient pressure, all samples retain or revert to forsterite with evidence for amorphous material also present in some cases. This study demonstrates the utility of femtosecond free‐electron laser X‐ray sources for probing the temporal evolution of high‐pressure silicate structures through the nanosecond‐scale events of shock compression and release.

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 Dates: 2020-12-042021
 Publication Status: Finally published
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 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1029/2020JB020337
GFZPOF: p4 T3 Restless Earth
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Title: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Source Genre: Journal, SCI, Scopus
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 126 (1) Sequence Number: e2020JB020337 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2169-9313
ISSN: 2169-9356
CoNE: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/cone/journals/resource/jgr_solid_earth
Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU)