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Journal Article

A Review of Reactor Designs for Hydrogen Storage in Clathrate Hydrates


Ghaani,  Mohammad Reza


Schicks,  J
3.1 Inorganic and Isotope Geochemistry, 3.0 Geochemistry, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

English,  Niall J.

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Ghaani, M. R., Schicks, J., English, N. J. (2021): A Review of Reactor Designs for Hydrogen Storage in Clathrate Hydrates. - Applied Sciences, 11, 2, 469.

Cite as: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5004716
Clathrate hydrates are ice-like, crystalline solids, composed of a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonded water molecules that confines gas molecules in well-defined cavities that can store gases as a solid solution. Ideally, hydrogen hydrates can store hydrogen with a maximum theoretical capacity of about 5.4 wt%. However, the pressures necessary for the formation of such a hydrogen hydrate are 180–220 MPa and therefore too high for large-scale plants and industrial use. Thus, since the early 1990s, there have been numerous studies to optimize pressure and temperature conditions for hydrogen formation and storage and to develop a proper reactor type via optimisation of the heat and mass transfer to maximise hydrate storage capacity in the resulting hydrate phase. So far, the construction of the reactor has been developed for small, sub-litre scale; and indeed, many attempts were reported for pilot-scale reactor design, on the multiple-litre scale and larger. The purpose of this review article is to compile and summarise this knowledge in a single article and to highlight hydrogen-storage prospects and future challenges.