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Journal Article

Geological controls on geothermal resources for power generation


Jolie,  Egbert
3.1 Inorganic and Isotope Geochemistry, 3.0 Geochemistry, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

Scott,  Samuel
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Faulds,  James
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Chambefort,  Isabelle
External Organizations;

Axelsson,  Guðni
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Gutiérrez-Negrín,  Luis Carlos
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Regenspurg,  Simona
4.8 Geoenergy, 4.0 Geosystems, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;


Ziegler,  M.
2.6 Seismic Hazard and Risk Dynamics, 2.0 Geophysics, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

Ayling,  Bridget
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Richter,  Alexander
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Zemedkun,  Meseret Teklemariam
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Jolie, E., Scott, S., Faulds, J., Chambefort, I., Axelsson, G., Gutiérrez-Negrín, L. C., Regenspurg, S., Ziegler, M., Ayling, B., Richter, A., Zemedkun, M. T. (2021 online): Geological controls on geothermal resources for power generation. - Nature Reviews Earth & Environment.

Cite as: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5006396
Threats posed by the climate crisis have created an urgent need for sustainable green energy. Geothermal resources have the potential to provide up to 150 GWe of sustainable energy by 2050. However, the key challenge in successfully locating and drilling geothermal wells is to understand how the heterogeneous structure of the subsurface controls the existence of exploitable fluid reservoirs. In this Review, we discuss how key geological factors contribute to the profitable utilization of intermediate-temperature to high-temperature geothermal resources for power generation. The main driver of geothermal activity is elevated crustal heat flow, which is focused in regions of active magmatism and/or crustal thinning. Permeable structures such as faults exercise a primary control on local fluid flow patterns, with most upflow zones residing in complex fault interaction zones. Major risks in geothermal resource assessment and operation include locating sufficient permeability for fluid extraction, in addition to declining reservoir pressure and the potential of induced seismicity. Advanced computational methods permit effective integration of multiple datasets and, thus, can reduce potential risks. Future innovations involve engineered geothermal systems as well as supercritical and offshore geothermal resources, which could greatly expand the global application of geothermal energy but require detailed knowledge of the respective geological conditions.