Privacy Policy Disclaimer
  Advanced SearchBrowse





Investigation of Regional Ionospheric Irregularities over Africa (IRIA)


Oluwadare,  Temitope Seun
1.1 Space Geodetic Techniques, 1.0 Geodesy, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;
Scientific Technical Report STR, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;


Schuh,  H.
1.1 Space Geodetic Techniques, 1.0 Geodesy, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

Schmidt,  Michael
External Organizations;


Alizadeh,  Mahdi
1.1 Space Geodetic Techniques, 1.0 Geodesy, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

Jakowski,  Norbert
External Organizations;

External Ressource
Fulltext (public)
Supplementary Material (public)
There is no public supplementary material available

Oluwadare, T. S. (2021): Investigation of Regional Ionospheric Irregularities over Africa (IRIA), PhD Thesis, (Scientific Technical Report STR ; 21/05), Potsdam : GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 170 p.

Cite as: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5007019
The Earth’s upper atmosphere – a part of it, the ionosphere- is a dynamic partly ionized region with temporal and spatial variations under different phases of solar activity. The ionosphere being a dispersive medium causes signal strength fluctuation, propagation delay, signal attenuation, and signal degradation. These have constituted significant threats to both communication and navigation systems operating in microwave band which is due to the presence of high electron density and its irregularities. The key parameter of the ionosphere which is closely related to most of these delay effects on radio signals is the electron density and density gradients, in particular - its vertical integral, the Total Electron Content (TEC) which can be estimated from the Global Positioning System (GPS) data. The estimated TEC profiles, and TEC perturbation are studied to gain insights into the occurrence of irregular structures in the ionosphere and their distribution. One of the ionospheric irregularities located within the F region, and E region top side are Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). TIDs are propagating perturbations in the ionospheric electron density as a consequence of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) passage. The AGWs originate in the troposphere or stratosphere, and exhibit neutral wind perturbations propagating to the F region heights (i.e. ionospheric heights), where the neutral wind perturbations interact with the plasma via collisions, carrying it along the magnetic field lines (i.e. ion-neutral collision). This entire process in the ionosphere is manifested as oscillations of the ionospheric electron density, resulting in a TID. However, TIDs vary in scale sizes ranging within a few hundred kilometers (km) to over one thousand km, and based on this, they are categorized as either medium-scale TIDs (MSTIDs) or large scale TIDs (LSTIDs). In this thesis, we focus only on MSTIDs as one of the major and frequent ionospheric irregularity phenomena which may degrade positioning systems and could cause a delay in GPS signal transmission between a satellite and the GPS receiver. Multiple studies of ionospheric irregularities with the main focus on MSTIDs over different regions and continents around the world have been carried out, but studies of MSTIDs over the African region have neither been carried out nor reported probably due to lack of GPS data set, and the question of what drives its occurrence in the region which is not yet documented. The objective of this thesis is to study and describe for the first time the occurrence of MSTIDs and its characteristics over the African region under quiet geomagnetic condition (Kp ≤ 3) during the years 2008 – 2016. In addition, this thesis presents novel results of the time series of MSTIDs percentage occurrence rate (POR) during daytime and nighttime, and seasonal occurrence. Ionneutral coupling processes like the connection between AGW and MSTIDs are also discussed in the study. Observational TEC data used in this thesis are obtained from ground-based GPS networks within the African region and nearby stations. Additionally, temperature data from COSMIC radio occultation and SABER satellite observations for some case studies were used to validate AGWs passage as a driving source of MSTIDs, especially during the daytime. Consequently, regional MSTIDs distribution maps have been generated to capture the latitudinal, seasonal, and local time extent of the MSTID occurrence. Investigation of regional ionospheric irregularities over Africa (IRIA) gives a novel result of a climatological view of MSTIDs over Northern and Southern hemispheres in the African region.