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Impact diamonds from meteorite craters and Neogene placers in Ukraine

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Kvasnytsya,  Victor M.
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Wirth,  R.
3.5 Interface Geochemistry, 3.0 Geochemistry, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

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Citation

Kvasnytsya, V. M., Wirth, R. (2022): Impact diamonds from meteorite craters and Neogene placers in Ukraine. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 116, 169-187.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00710-022-00778-y


Cite as: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5012085
Abstract
There are seven meteorite craters and several Neogene placers in the Ukrainian Shield containing impact apographitic diamond. In this work impact diamonds from the Bilylivka meteorite crater and from the Samotkan’ Neogene titanium-zirconium placer were studied in detail. The results of a comprehensive study of impact diamond crystals — morphology, microtopography, microstructure, carbon isotope composition, photoluminescence, optical, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy — are presented. The size of the impact diamonds is up to 0.5 mm. Impact diamond crystals are mostly two- or three-phase polycrystalline aggregates (diamond, lonsdaleite, graphite). They show external morphological and internal microstructural features of solid-state phase transition of graphite to diamond during impact shock metamorphism – they are paramorphoses on graphite crystals. Microstructural features of the graphite-diamond transition in the studied crystals of impact diamonds are their polysynthetic (11 2¯¯¯ 1) twinning and the polycrystalline structure of the twins themselves. The carbon isotopic composition of impact diamonds ranges: for Bilylivka diamonds – from –14.80 to –21.84 ‰ δ13C VPDB, with an average value of –17.21 ‰ δ13C and for Samotkan’ diamonds – from –10.35 to –23.06 ‰ δ13C VPDB, with an average value of –17.64 ‰ δ13C. The photo luminescent and spectroscopic features of the studied diamonds indicate the absence of nitrogen defects in crystals that are characteristic for mantle diamond. The location of the source rocks and potential routes how diamond have been incorporated into the Samotkan’ placer are discussed.