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Impacts of the January 2022 Tonga Volcanic Eruption on the Ionospheric Dynamo: ICON‐MIGHTI and Swarm Observations of Extreme Neutral Winds and Currents

Authors

Harding,  Brian J.
External Organizations;

Wu,  Yen‐Jung Joanne
External Organizations;

Alken,  Patrick
External Organizations;

/persons/resource/yamazaki

Yamazaki,  Yosuke
2.3 Geomagnetism, 2.0 Geophysics, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

Triplett,  Colin C.
External Organizations;

Immel,  Thomas J.
External Organizations;

Gasque,  L. Claire
External Organizations;

Mende,  Stephen B.
External Organizations;

Xiong,  Chao
External Organizations;

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Citation

Harding, B. J., Wu, Y. J., Alken, P., Yamazaki, Y., Triplett, C. C., Immel, T. J., Gasque, L. C., Mende, S. B., Xiong, C. (2022): Impacts of the January 2022 Tonga Volcanic Eruption on the Ionospheric Dynamo: ICON‐MIGHTI and Swarm Observations of Extreme Neutral Winds and Currents. - Geophysical Research Letters, 49, 9, e2022GL098577.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL098577


Cite as: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5012996
Abstract
The eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano on 15 January 2022 triggered atmospheric waves at all altitudes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) and European Space Agency Swarm satellites were well placed to observe its impact on the ionospheric wind dynamo. After the Lamb wave entered the dayside, Swarm A observed an eastward and then westward equatorial electrojet (EEJ) on two consecutive orbits, each with magnitudes exceeding the 99.9th percentile of typically observed values. ICON simultaneously observed the neutral wind (90–300 km altitude) at approximately the same distance from Tonga. The observed neutral winds were also extreme (>99.9th percentile at some altitudes). The covariation of EEJ and winds is consistent with recent theoretical and observational results, indicating that the westward electrojet is driven by strong westward winds in the Pedersen region (∼120–150 km). These observations imply that the dynamo is a key mechanism in the ionospheric response to the Tonga disturbance.