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Journal Article

Fluid evolution and origin of the Tamazert fluorite deposits, Moroccan High Atlas


Rddad,  Larbi
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Sosnicka,  Marta
3.2 Organic Geochemistry, 3.0 Geochemistry, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

Abdelhafid,  Essalhi
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Kraemer,  Dennis
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Billström,  Kjell
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Mourad,  Essalhi
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Toummite,  Abdeslam
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Rddad, L., Sosnicka, M., Abdelhafid, E., Kraemer, D., Billström, K., Mourad, E., Toummite, A. (2023): Fluid evolution and origin of the Tamazert fluorite deposits, Moroccan High Atlas. - Journal of African Earth Sciences, 200, 104856.

Cite as: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5015423
This study focuses on the origin of fluorite ore deposits that are associated with the Eocene alkaline igneous suite of the Tamazert complex in the Moroccan High Atlas. Based on field observations and mineralogy, two major ore styles were identified: 1) a disseminated purple fluorite in aegirine-rich nepheline syenites (stage 1) and 2) a banded purple-white fluorite ore in karstic cavities and veins hosted in the Jurassic carbonate (stage 2). Both fluorite mineralization stages are commonly accompanied by calcite. The distribution of fluorite deposits at the peripheries of syenite and the surrounding Jurassic carbonates suggests the development of long-lived hydrologic systems around the shallow intrusion. Based on fluid inclusion, Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium (REY), and C–O isotopic constraints, this study reveals that different fluid systems were responsible for the deposition of fluorite ores in and around the Tamazert alkaline igneous complex. The disseminated interstitial fluorite precipitated from a F-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, which exsolved from the highly evolved alkaline-silicate melt and was subsequently altered by Na–Ca metasomatic brines. Vein-type fluorite deposits hosted in the Jurassic carbonates precipitated from low salinity (1.6–8.5 wt% NaCl equiv.) and heated (Th = 118–157 °C) meteoric fluids, which migrated in response to the heat flow around the shallow intrusion. Fluid cooling, fluid interaction with Jurassic carbonates, and pressure fluctuations were the most important fluorite deposition mechanisms. The evolved melt provided F and REY for the interstitial fluorites, whereas meteoric fluids leached F− from syenites and other F-bearing igneous rocks. Based on the fractionation pattern, the REY inventory of the vein fluorites was acquired by interaction of meteoric fluids with Jurassic carbonates.