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Journal Article

Tropospheric water vapor: a comprehensive high-resolution data collection for the transnational Upper Rhine Graben region


Fersch,  Benjamin
External Organizations;

Wagner,  Andreas
External Organizations;

Kamm,  Bettina
External Organizations;

Shehaj,  Endrit
External Organizations;

Schenk,  Andreas
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Yuan,  Peng
0 Pre-GFZ, Departments, GFZ Publication Database, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum;

Geiger,  Alain
External Organizations;

Moeller,  Gregor
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Heck,  Bernhard
External Organizations;

Hinz,  Stefan
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Kutterer,  Hansjörg
External Organizations;

Kunstmann,  Harald
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Fersch, B., Wagner, A., Kamm, B., Shehaj, E., Schenk, A., Yuan, P., Geiger, A., Moeller, G., Heck, B., Hinz, S., Kutterer, H., Kunstmann, H. (2022): Tropospheric water vapor: a comprehensive high-resolution data collection for the transnational Upper Rhine Graben region. - Earth System Science Data, 14, 12, 5287-5307.

Cite as: https://gfzpublic.gfz-potsdam.de/pubman/item/item_5022690
Tropospheric water vapor is one of the most important trace gases of the Earth's climate system, and its temporal and spatial distribution is critical for the genesis of clouds and precipitation. Due to the pronounced dynamics of the atmosphere and the nonlinear relation of air temperature and saturated vapor pressure, it is highly variable, which hampers the development of high-resolution and three-dimensional maps of regional extent. With their complementary high temporal and spatial resolutions, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) meteorology and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) satellite remote sensing represent a significant alternative to generally sparsely distributed radio sounding observations. In addition, data fusion with collocation and tomographical methods enables the construction of detailed maps in either two or three dimensions. Finally, by assimilation of these observation-derived datasets with dynamical regional atmospheric models, tropospheric water vapor fields can be determined with high spatial and continuous temporal resolution. In the following, a collection of basic and processed datasets, obtained with the above-listed methods, is presented that describes the state and course of atmospheric water vapor for the extent of the GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network (GURN) region. The dataset contains hourly 2D fields of integrated water vapor (IWV) and 3D fields of water vapor density (WVD) for four multi-week, variable season periods between April 2016 and October 2018 at a spatial resolution of (2.1 km)2. Zenith total delay (ZTD) from GNSS and collocation and refractivities are provided as intermediate products. InSAR (Sentinel-1A/B)-derived double differential slant total delay phases (ddSTDPs) and GNSS-based ZTDs are available for March 2015 to July 2019. The validation of data assimilation with five independent GNSS stations for IWV shows improving Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) scores for all seasons, most notably for summer, with collocation data assimilation (KGE = 0.92) versus the open-cycle simulation (KGE = 0.69). The full dataset can be obtained from https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.936447 (Fersch et al., 2021).